5. Methodological note
The methodology of the DESI 2021 (Digital Economy and Society Index (DESI) 2021. Methodological note) presents relevant changes with respect to the DESI 2020. The dimensions have been reorganized; there are now four instead of five. The old dimension 3, Use of Internet Services, has been completely removed. In terms of the number of indicators, they have gone from thirty-seven to thirty-three: on the one hand, some have been eliminated and on the other, new ones have been added.
Dimension 1, Human capital, (dimension 2 in DESI 2020), keeps the same two subdimensions, Internet user skills and Advanced skills and development. The three indicators of the first subdimension, Internet user skills, come from the Survey on equipment and use of information and communication technologies in households (Idescat, 2020 data), the calculation methodology of which is based on Digital Skills Indicator - derived from Eurostat survey on ICT usage by Individuals. Methodological note, 2015. Regarding the second subdimension, Advanced skills and development, for the calculation of ICT specialists (1b1) and Female ICT specialists (1b2), Idescat has calculated the values, based on data from the INE labor force survey. Indicator 1b3, Enterprises providing ICT training, new in this edition of the DESI, comes from the Survey on the use of ICT and e-Commerce in companies (Idescat, data 2019-2020). And finally, the source of data on ICT graduates (1b4) is the Statistics on Population Studies, from Idescat.
Dimension 2 (dimension 1 in DESI 2020) is that of Connectivity and maintains the four subdimensions of the previous edition but a couple of indicators have been added. Several sources have been used to obtain the indicators. The indicators 2a1 Overall fixed broadband take-up and the 2c4 Mobile broadband take-uop come from the Survey on equipment and use of information and communication technologies in households (Idescat, 2020 data). The 2a2 At least 100 Mbps fixed broadband take-up has been partially estimated from the 2020 data of the National Markets and Competition Commission (CNMC by its Spanish initials). Specifically, the percentage of lines in households and that of At least 100 Mbps lines over the total lines have been estimated. On the other hand, NGA, VHCN and 4G coverage data (2b1, 2b2 and 2c1 respectively) have been provided by the Secretary of State for Telecommunications and Digital Infrastructures (SETID by its Spanish initials) for the year 2020. Finally, there are four indicators whose values are the same as for Spain: at least 1 Gbps fixed broadband take-up (2a3), 5G readiness (2c2), 5G coverage (2c3), and Broadband price index (2d1), as it has not been possible to obtain sufficient methodological information or disaggregated data to calculate them at the level of Catalonia.
Dimension 3 of DESI 2020, Use of Internet Services, has been removed. The current dimension 3 is the former dimension 4, Integration of digital technology. In this dimension, a new subdimension has been added with a single indicator: 3a1 SMEs with at least at a basic level of digital intensity, the value of which has been calculated by Idescat based on data from the Survey on the use of information and communication technologies and e-Commerce in companies and based on the methodology of DESI 2021. In the second subdimension, Digital technologies for businesses, three new indicators have been added. To obtain two of them, 3b5 AI and 3b6 ICT for environmental sustainability, an ad hoc survey was conducted using the same methodology and questions from European studies where the data for EU member states of the EU-271. The other, 3b7 E-Invoices, comes from the same survey of Idescat indicated above, which is also the source of the other indicators of this subdimension (3b1, 3b2, 3b3 and 3b4) and the third, e-Commerce, in which there has been no change with respect to DESI 2020.
Finally, dimension 4 (formerly dimension 5), Digital public services, maintains the same five indicators grouped in the same subdimension, e-Government. The novelty in DESI 2021 in this case is that the methodology for obtaining the values of the indicators has been modified. The data for indicator 4a1, e-Government users, come from Idescat, based on the Survey on the equipment and use of information and communication technologies in households. The indicators Pre-filled forms (4a2), Digital public services for citizens (4a3) and Digital public services for businesses (4a4) are based on the methodology set out in the European Commission's eGovernment Benchmark 2020. An evaluation has been made of various services offered by the different Public Administrations in Catalonia, using the Mystery Shopping technique. The Open data indicator (4a5) was obtained using the questionnaire collected on the European Data Portal, and was completed by the Direcció General de Transparència i Dades Obertes de la Generalitat de Catalunya (Directorate-General for Transparency and Open Data).
European enterprise survey on the use of technologies based on artificial intelligence by Ipsos and iCite; Survey of businesses on the use of digital technologies by Ipsos and iCite.