3. Evolution of DESI Catalonia 2019-2020
This section analyses the temporal evolution of DESI and its components over the last two years. In order to be able to compare each of the indicators a homogenization task has been carried out, regarding both the methodology applied as well as the sources consulted. Specifically, the methodological changes incorporated into this year’s DESI make it necessary to recalculate the former DESI, therefore the end values of the DESI 2019 presented in the table below do not match those obtained last year.
Below are the DESI results for Catalonia for the years 2019 and 2020, in terms of its numerical values and positions and their respective variations.
Catalonia has improved or maintained its position in four of the five dimensions of DESI 2020. In Use of Internet Services, it has advanced a position, and in Digital Public Services, two positions. In Connectivity and Human Capital, it maintains its 2019 position. In contrast, in Integration of Digital Technology Catalonia has gone down one position with respect to 2019. The following graph shows the sub-dimensions with their corresponding gains or losses in the period 2019 and 2020.
As can be seen, the most prominent growth corresponds to the subdimension Fixed broadband take-up, followed by e-Commerce. Overall, it should be noted that there is no sub-dimension that decreased in 2020 with respect to 2019.
Graph 9, shown below, shows the evolution of indicators. It shows that, of the 37 indicators, 7 indicators decrease in 2020 compared to 20191. The biggest decline can be seen in Big data (companies) and the use of Social Networks by the population. At the other extreme, At least 100 Mbps fixed broadband takeup shows very strong growth, followed by Video Calls.
Graph 10 analyses the position of the sub-dimensions, comparing their position in 2020 and its evolution with respect to 2019. The horizontal axis represents the increase, decrease, or maintenance of positions while the vertical axis shows the current position.
In this analysis three groups are differentiated; first, in the upper right quadrant, we find the group of sub-dimensions with leading positions in the ranking (in green) that are maintained (Online activities, Business digitisation) or have shown improvement (Fixed broadband take-up, Internet user skills, Advanced skills and development, Internet use, eGovernment). The upper left quadrant shows the group of sub-dimensions that have lost positions (in blue), though still high (Fixed broadband coverage, Mobile broadband). The third group consists of sub-dimensions positions that have fallen behind the most (in yellow), those which have remained consistent (Transactions, Broadband price index), and those which have improved (e- Commerce).
Graph 11, shown below, the equivalent for indicators.
In terms of indicators, the differentiation by groups is similar to that of subdimensions, but in this case with four groups. To begin with, there is the first group of indicators with strong positions that have also improved with respect to 2019 (e.g., At least 100 Mbps fixed broadband take-up, in green). A second group is made up of indicators that, while maintaining a leading position, regressed in 2020 (as would be the case for Online courses, in blue). On the other hand, indicators with positions that are falling behind are divided into two groups: those that have improved (e-Commerce turnover, in yellow) and those who lose positions (Big data, in red). The indicator that has gained the most ground is Video calls (thirteen) and those who lose the most, Social Networks and Shopping online (four).
Graph 12 combines the evolution of figures and the position of the subdimensions. The variation of the sub-dimensions is shown in the horizontal axis and on the vertical axis improvement or drop of positions. The horizontal dotted line indicates the average variation of the position of the subdimensions (1,33) and the vertical line indicates the average change in value (9.66%).
By comparing the evolution of sub-dimensions in terms of value and position, it can be seen that the sub-dimensions whose positions have improved the most are also those that have grown most in value (Fixed broadband take-up, Internet user skills, Internet use and e-Commerce). Only the sub-dimensions of e-Government and Advanced skills and development show below-average growth despite improving in position. On the other hand, there are subdimensions that have held their position as well as some that have made modest gains (Broadband price index, Online activities, Transactions, and Business digitisation), and others that those that have gone down in positions and have grown the least (Fixed broadband coverage and Mobile broadband). It could be said, then, that there is a certain positive relationship between positional improvement and value growth.
Graph 13 shows the same comparison in terms of indicators.
The analysis of the indicators is the same as that of the sub-dimensions. The majority of indicators that have improved in position (43% of the indicators) are also those that have grown the most, while those that have gone down in positions (about 32% of the indicators) are the ones that have decreased the most. Indicators that do not vary from position (24%) also show no relevant increases or decreases. On the other hand, only 7 indicators have decreased in value, and of these the vast majority (6) also do so in position. Of the 30 indicators that present positive growth, 16 indicators advance in position, 9 indicators maintain their position, and 5 indicators go back in position.
The fastest-growing indicator is At least 100 Mbps fixed broadband take-up (118.75%) and gains eight positions, while the most improvement in terms of positions is for Video calls (thirteen positions), with a growth of 53.89%. On the other hand, the indicator that decreases the most is of Big data (-16.89%) losing three positions.
As for the average variations, 30% of the indicators grow above the average value of all these (8.07%). The average variation in terms of positions is 1.27.
In short, the analysis of the evolution of the DESI of Catalonia in the last two years shows that no sub-dimension or dimension has had negative growth. Only two sub-dimensions have receded slightly in position (Fixed broadband coverage and Mobile broadband), both corresponding to the Connectivity dimension. Most of the rest of the sub-dimensions have improved positions compared to 2019. At the level of dimensions, the only one that regresses a position is the one related to Integration of Digital Technology in companies, the rest of the dimensions improve their position (Use of Internet Services, Digital Public Services) or maintain their level (Connectivity, Human Capital).
The 3a1 indicator "People who never used the Internet" has an inverse value, which is to say, a decrease implies a positive evolution.