3. Evolution of DESI Catalonia 2020-2022

The following section analyzes the temporal evolution of the DESI and its components over the last three years. In order to compare all of the indicators, a work of homogenization has been carried out, for both the methodology applied and the sources consulted. Specifically, the methodological changes incorporated into the DESI of this edition make it necessary to recalculate the scores from previous editions, so that the final scores presented in the following table do not coincide with those obtained last year.

Below are the results of the DESI of Catalonia of the last three editions, both at the level of scores and positions and their respective variations.

Table 9. Comparative analysis DESI (2020-2022).
Table 9 Comparative analysis DESI 2020-2022
Source: Author's calculations

As can be seen in Table 9, in the DESI 2022 there are some indicators for which the score of previous years is not available and, therefore, its evolution cannot be analyzed. This is due to changes in the DESI methodology, and applies to all EU-27 states.

In DESI 2022, Catalonia has improved its result in the four dimensions compared to DESI 2020. However, this improvement does not always result in a change in positional terms, since position is relative to the results of the EU-27 states. Thus, the position of Catalonia in Human capital and Connectivity has fallen one position compared to DESI 2020; while in Integration of digital technology and Digital public services it has gained a position.

The following Graph presents the sub-dimensions with their corresponding increase or decrease in the 2020-2022 period.

Graph 7. Evolution of sub-dimensions (2020-2022)

As can be seen, the most notable growth corresponds to the Mobile broadband sub-dimension, followed by Broadband prices. Overall, it is worth noting the fact that there is no sub-dimension that decreases in 2022, except for Advanced skills and development with -2.11%.

Graphic 8 lays out the evolution of the indicators for which the scores of previous years are available, and it can be seen how most of the indicators grow in 2022 compared to 2020. Those that decrease the most are those related to the presence of women specialists in ICT and enterprises that provide ICT Training for their workers. At the other extreme, 5G spectrum allocation and the Broadband Price Index show very strong growth.

Graph 8. Evolution of indicators (2020-2022)

Graphic 9 analyzes the position of the sub-dimensions, comparing that of 2022 and its evolution with respect to 2020. The horizontal axis represents the increase, decrease or maintenance of positions while the current position is represented on the vertical axis.

Graph 9. Positional evolution of sub-dimensions (2020-2022)
Graph 9. Positional evolution of sub-dimensions (2020-2022)
Source: Author's calculations

In this analysis, two groups are differentiated; firstly, in the upper half of the Graph is the group of sub-dimensions with advanced ranking positions (in green) that are maintained (Fixed broadband coverage) or improved (Fixed broadband take-up, e-Government and Broadband prices). In the lower half is the group of sub-dimensions with lower positions that maintain or gain positions (in green, Digital technologies for businesses and Electronic commerce) or that lose positions (in blue, Mobile broadband and Advanced skills and development).

Below in Graph 10 shows the equivalent for indicators.

Graph 10. Positional evolution of indicators (2020-2022)
Graph 10. Positional evolution of indicators (2020-2022)
Source: Author's calculations

Regarding the indicators, the differentiation by groups is similar to that of the sub-dimensions but in this case with four groups. On the one hand, there is a first group of indicators with prominent positions that, in addition, improve compared to 2020 (for example, Overall fixed broadband take-up, in green). A second group is made up of the indicators that, despite maintaining advanced positions, fall back in 2022 (as is the case of electronic invoicing, in blue). The third group corresponds to the indicators with more modest positions but that have advanced compared to 2020 (e-Government users, in yellow). The fourth group is made up of the indicators with the lowest position and losing positions (Enterprises that provide ICT training, in red). The indicator has the most gains in its position is the Broadband Price Index (16) and the one that loses the most, Female ICT specialists (13).

Graphic 11 combines the evolution of the score and the position of the sub-dimensions. On the horizontal axis the variation of the sub-dimensions is represented and on the vertical axis the improvement or regression of positions. The horizontal dotted line indicates the average variation of the position of the sub-dimensions (1.85) and the vertical axis, the average variation of the score (43.34%).

Graph 11. Comparison of the evolution of sub-dimensions and positions (2020-2022)
Graph 11. Comparison of the evolution of sub-dimensions and positions (2020-2022)
Source: Author's calculations

In green, the sub-dimensions that have increased their score and have improved their position are shown, as is the case of the Broadband prices or Electronic Commerce; in blue are those that maintain the position with respect to 2020 and have grown in score (Digital technologies for for businesses), in yellow are those that despite having grown in score regress in position (Mobile broadband) and in red those that regress in position as well as in score (Advanced Skills and Development).

Graphic 12 presents the same comparison at the indicator level.

Graph 12. Comparison of the evolution of indicators and positions (2020-2022)
Graph 12. Comparison of the evolution of indicators and positions (2020-2022)
Source: Author's calculations

The analysis of the indicators shows that, in general, most of the indicators that grow in score also improve in position. Of the 22 indicators analyzed, among the 6 that fell in position, there are 4 that also decreased in score; while among the 16 indicators that present positive growth, 11 advance in position, 3 maintain it and 2 regress.

The indicator that grows the most is the 5G spectrum indicator, but it loses two positions. The most important positional improvement corresponds to the Broadband Price Index, with very notable growth as well. On the other hand, the indicator that decreases the most is that of enterprises that provide training in ICT; losing three positions.

With regards to variation with respect to the average score, 7 indicators grow above the average score for all of these (17.16%). The average variation in terms of positions is 1.05.

  1. At least basic digital skills; Above basic digital skills; At least basic digital content creation skills; SMEs with at least at a the basic level digital intensity, Cloud; AI; ICT for environmental sustainability; Pre-filled forms; Digital public services for citizens; Digital public services for businesses; and Open Data.

  2. The Internet user skills and Digital intensity sub-dimensions cannot be analyzed as their respective indicators are not available for previous years.