4. Conclusions

For the fourth consecutive year, Catalonia maintains the fifth position of digitization in its economy and society, in this edition with an overall score of 63.96%. This outstanding position is supported, especially, by Connectivity and Digital Public Services. Catalonia is ranked a very short distance from the pioneer states in digitization, the so-called "Nordic group" made up of Finland, Denmark, the Netherlands and Sweden. Analyzing the overall performance in the DESI index, it can be seen that Catalonia continues to have a development above the European average in all dimensions, thus consolidating the digital strength of its society and economy.

In DESI 2022, Catalonia has improved in all dimensions, although this increase does not always translate into obtaining a better relative position in all the EU-27 states. Regarding DESI 2021, Catalonia loses one position in Human capital (from seventh to eighth), gains one position in Connectivity and another in Integration of digital technology in companies (in both cases, from eighth to seventh), and maintains fourth position in Digital Public Services.

Thus, Connectivity continues to be a strong point and the basis of the digitalization of Catalonia, and it is the dimension in which it obtains the best position, specifically second, behind Denmark and ahead of the Netherlands. It is worth highlighting the result of fixed broadband, which leads the ranking of EU states, and that of the fixed broadband take up, which wins second position, behind Hungary.

In the Human capital dimension, the digital skills of internet users indicators stand out positively, while the data related to ICT training and employment (especially among women), despite being slightly above the European average, still have a long way to go when compared with the EU-27 states.

Regarding the integration of digital technology, Catalan companies generally show a good level of digitization. All in all, the percentage of billing coming from e-Commerce in small and medium-sized companies seems to have stagnated, both nationally and internationally.

On the other hand, the degree of digitization of the Public Administration in Catalonia has improved year after year. However, in comparison with the other EU-27 states, the users of electronic administration and open data in Catalonia do not hold the top positions.

Ultimately, the analysis of the results of DESI 2022 shows that, in general, Catalonia is progressing in the digital transformation of its society and economy, showing outstanding levels of digitization in all dimensions. However, it is necessary to improve in aspects such as ICT talent and the close the gender gap as well as improvement in the use of certain digital technologies by companies, the volume of business of e-Commerce of SMEs, the use of online procedures by citizens, and open data by the public administration.